Autism Autism involves atypical brain development which often becomes apparent in behavior and social development before a child is three years old. It can be characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted interests and stereotyped behavior, and the characterization is independent of any underlying neurological defects.
Homo sapiens first appeared aboutyears ago At this stage we were still hunter-gatherers, out looking for food rather than growing and rearing our own supplies. These modern hunter-gatherers tend to be shorter and lighter than their urban cousins but still need to consume far more calories due to the additional energy expended in finding food.
The ability to adapt our diet has been essential to the human migration from the warmth of Africa to the cold of the Arctic north and the arid heat of the deserts. Why the preference for a high fat diet? Calories are essential for energy. Every cell in the body produces energy by the process of respiration and respiration needs a constant supply of glucose.
Fat can store twice as many calories per unit weight than proteins are carbohydrates. If food was scarce it would literally have been survival of the fattest!
We seem to learn at a very young age which foods are high in calories and we develop a taste for these. Gibson and Wardle found that the calorific value of food was the best predictor of whether or not a child would like that food.
Fats are very useful for energy.
A given amount of fat contains about twice the calories of similar amounts of protein or carbohydrate. In our historical past, fats would have been relatively rare.
As a result fat would have been relished and cherished! Today, in contrast fat is everywhere, but unfortunately we have not lost that preference for it and as a result we consume it in huge and dangerous amounts.
This comprised some meat, fish, fatty oils, fruit and veg. Fatty foods would have provided the calories along with vitamins A and D whilst the fruit and veg would have provided a few carbohydrates and vitamins B and C.
Compared to modern diet however, carbohydrates would have been in short supply. Some believe this move away from our ancient diet with a much greater reliance on carbs has led to increased incidence of hypertension, CHD and obesity.
Why the preference for sweet foods? In some ways the answer to this is obvious. Sweet indicates presence of sugar which indicates calories needed for energy.
Sweetness would be associated with foods that are ripe and foods that are ripe are going to contain more sugar. Rozin thinks this preference for sweetness is innate. Bell et al gave sweet foods to Eskimos in Alaska. Under normal conditions Eskimos have nothing sweet in their diet.
However, the foods were readily accepted despite their novel nature, again suggesting an underlying human preference for sweet foods.
Again a genetic predisposition is evidence of evolutionary pressure to like sweet foods. Sugar placed on the tongues of newborn babies produces positive facial expressions again suggesting the preference for sweet is there at birth Steiner Zhao et al identified two specific genes, T1r2 and T1r3 which code for sweet receptors on the tongue.
The fact that these genes exist and have been maintained within the population again provide powerful biological evidence for an adaptive preference for sweet foods. This would seem to be supported by the number of sweet receptors on the human tongue, far more than for the other flavours such as bitter, sour, salt and umami.
People of all ages and of all cultures seem to prefer sweet taste to any other, suggesting it is an inherited preference: Meiselman et al Finally, humans go to extreme lengths and risk danger to secure sweet food. Members of the Bayaka Pygmy tribe of Africa climb high trees and suffer stings from hundreds of angry bees to provide this sweet food for their families.
Why the preference for salty foods? Salt is essential for the functioning of muscles and nerve cells action potentials and all that. Homeostasis keeps salt levels reasonably constant.
However, salt is not readily available naturally, so like fat when it was found by our ancestors it would have been much prized, hence the reason for us liking it so much. Some have suggested that our desire for salt is innate, we do after all have salt receptors on the tongue.
By four months of age, children being breastfed which contains very low levels of salt prefer cereals that are salty. People with natural sodium deficiency find salt even more palatable than the rest of us and eat it in larger quantities when available. Dudley et al found that ants living further inland with less salty soils prefer salty foods to sweet.
Again these studies suggest that we instinctively know that we need salt and have developed mechanisms that ensure we get sufficient. Apparently Scottish deer risk death on British roads by licking surfaces that have been gritted with rock salt in the winter months.Anorexia (an-o-REK-see-uh) nervosa — often simply called anorexia — is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.
People with anorexia place a high value on controlling their . Anxiety disorders are a set of related mental conditions that include: generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES. This is an advanced level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Determine the level of severity of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Part 1: Understanding an eating disorder An Overview. What follows are a number of the mainstream technicalities that need introduction in order for you, as a patient, to be able to communicate with health care practitioners dedicated to diagnosing and treating eating disorders. Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for causes of death, – a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study
General statistics: At least 30 million people of all ages and genders suffer from an eating disorder in the U.S. 1, 2 Every 62 minutes at least one person dies as a direct result from an eating disorder. 3 Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any mental illness. 4 13% of women over 50 engage in eating disorder behaviors.
5 In a large national study of college students, %. Aggression in children can be a symptom of many different underlying problems.
It’s a very polymorphic thing, a commonality for any number of different psychiatric conditions, medical problems, and . LEARNING OBJECTIVES. This is an advanced level course. After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Determine the level of severity of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Eating Disorders: How the Media Have Influenced Their Development In Adolescent Girls - Eating Disorders: How the Media Have Influenced Their Development In Adolescent Girls The words "eat" and "boring" are usually never found in the same sentence, but leave it to a supermodel to accomplish this task.