Water, like religion and ideology, has the power to move millions of people. Since the very birth of human civilization, people have moved to settle close to water. People move when there is too little of it. People move when there is too much of it.
Read full text A major impact of this climate change has been on the rainfall pattern. The frequency, intensity and duration of the rainfall in many parts of the world have changed significantly in the recent past.
Flash floods, acid rains and high intensity rainfall is a unique feature. Surface hydrology depends largely on the precipitation pattern, it is important to estimate forecast to reduce damage. Water harvesting is an effective way to conserve water resources.
Runoff from the parking area could be used in many ways. Normally, there is provision to collect this water and divert it into sewer for safe disposal. This water could also be used for storage and recharge purposes in the areas with less rainfall availability. Recharging of the aquifer by use of this water is a good idea.
The major task while planning for these systems is to calculate the maximum rainfall for the region.
Various methods are used in estimating the probable maximum rainfall for an area. Intensity-duration-frequency curves are used in determining the intensity of rainfall.
It is commonly used to calculate the value of I in rational method. These curves are the graphical representation of the probability of occurance of a rainfall of average intensity.
The rational method illustrates a proper application of IDF curve. IDF curves should not be used to obtain storm runoff volumes.
The Intensity-Duration-Frequency curve is plotted with duration and intensity on the horizontal and vertical axis.
When more than one curves are plotted on the graph, it represents the average frequency between the occurance of a rainfall of given intensity. These curves are generated by using the rainfall data and frequency analysis using Gumbel distribution.
There are many other methods available to generate IDF curves. Historical series of maximum rainfall intensities for different durations should be available for developing IDF curves.
IDF curves are location specific and the expression varies between regions. These curves are usually available with the local environment agencies. The following figure is an example of IDF curve. Statistical estimation and meteorological methods are used in the calculation of the probable maximum This is a preview of the 8-page document.Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
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